Scoutles.com – The Swimming merit badge may be excellent for you if you’re certain in your ability to not drown! This Eagle-required badge is commonly finished during summer camps, or as a troop activity, as well as needs a licensed lifeguard’s guidance.
In this overview, I’m mostly going to be instructing you on every one of the answers for the educational elements of this badge No chance can I teach you how to swim online!
In my army, we had the ability to earn the Swimming merit badge on a weekend trip, as one of our precursor’s parents was an experienced lifeguard. It might be worth coordinating a day at the swimming pool to gain this vital merit badge if this is the case in your army too!
Swimming Merit Badge Requirements
Keep reading if you’re still established on completing the Swimming merit badge! I’ll be breaking down the answers to each of the expertise demands for the worksheet in this overview, along with providing you some pointers to much more easily earn this badge.
Prior to we get started, remember that safety is key. Although this is an enjoyable badge to finish, many individuals have actually been harmed while swimming, so deal with any task around water extremely seriously.
Now that you understand what you’re getting involved in, let’s answer the demands so that you can begin making your Swimming merit badge!
Do not stress! In this overview, I’ll likewise be providing you with the most effective online tutorial videos so you can much better learn these vital swimming as well as survival strategies!
By using these videos as a testimonial before your swimming examination, you’ll be prepared to show your understanding of your merit badge counselor.
Now that you recognize how best to utilize this guide, allow’s leap right into addressing the knowledge requirements to make sure that you can rapidly complete the worksheet as well as make your very own Swimming merit badge!
1. Do the following two things
|A. Explain to your counselor how Scouting’s Safe Swim Defense plan anticipates, helps prevent and mitigate, and provides responses to likely hazards you may encounter during swimming activities.|
|B. Discuss the prevention and treatment of health concerns that could occur while swimming, including hypothermia, dehydration, sunburn, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, muscle cramps, hyperventilation, spinal injury, stings and bites, and cuts and scrapes.|
A. Explain how scouting’s safe to swim defense plan anticipates
Scouting’s Safe Swim Protection strategy is aimed at recognizing and also preventing possible dangers in aquatic conditions.
By creating a safe swimming environment beforehand (Preparation) utilizing points 2 (Personal Health Review), 3 (Safe Location), and also 8 (Discipline), you do everything feasible, ahead of time, to make certain a secure swim.
To aid reduce (Avoid) possible hazards throughout swim points 1 (Qualified Supervision), 6 (Ability Groups), as well as 7 (Buddy System) assistance to offer more understanding and also preparation, needs to an emergency occur.
To React to threats, rely on points 4 (Lifeguard Response Personel) and also 5 (Lookouts).
Now that you understand what teams each of these points drop under (Preparation, Prevention, and Response), put in the time to go through the actual BSA Safe Swim Defense plan below:
|1. Qualified Supervision|
All swimming activity must be supervised by a mature and conscientious adult age 21 or older who understands and knowingly accepts responsibility for the well-being and safety of those in his or her care, and who is trained in and committed to compliance with the eight points of BSA Safe Swim Defense. It is strongly recommended that all units have at least one adult or older youth member currently trained in BSA Aquatics Supervision: Swimming and Water Rescue or BSA Lifeguard to assist in planning and conducting all swimming activities.
|2. Personal Health Review|
A complete health history is required of all participants as evidence of fitness for swimming activities. Forms for minors must be signed by a parent or legal guardian. Participants should be asked to relate any recent incidents of illness or injury just prior to the activity. Supervision and protection should be adjusted to anticipate any potential risks associated with individual health conditions. For significant health conditions, the adult supervisor should require an examination by a physician and consult with the parent, guardian, or caregiver for appropriate precautions.
|3. Safe Area|
All swimming areas must be carefully inspected and prepared for safety prior to each activity. Water depth, quality, temperature, movement, and clarity are important considerations. Hazards must be eliminated or isolated by conspicuous markings and discussed with participants.
Controlled Access: There must be safe areas for all participating ability groups to enter and leave the water. Swimming areas of appropriate depth must be defined for each ability group. The entire area must be within easy reach of designated rescue personnel. The area must be clear of boat traffic, surfing, or other nonswimming activities.
Bottom Conditions and Depth: The bottom must be clear of trees and debris. Abrupt changes in depth are not allowed in the nonswimmer area. Isolated underwater hazards should be marked with floats. Rescue personnel must be able to easily reach the bottom. The maximum recommended water depth in clear water is 12 feet. The maximum water depth in turbid water is 8 feet.
Visibility: Underwater swimming and diving are prohibited in turbid water. Turbid water exists when a swimmer treading water cannot see their feet. Swimming at night is allowed only in areas with water clarity and lighting sufficient for good visibility both above and below the surface.
Diving and Elevated Entry: Diving is permitted only into clear, unobstructed water from heights no greater than 40 inches. Water depth must be at least 7 feet. Bottom depth contours below diving boards and elevated surfaces require greater water depths and must conform to state regulations. Persons should not jump into the water from heights greater than they are tall and should jump only into water chest deep or greater with minimal risk from contact with the bottom. No elevated entry is permitted where the person must clear any obstacle, including land.
Water Temperature: Comfortable water temperature for swimming is near 80 degrees. Activity in the water at 70 degrees or less should be of limited duration and closely monitored for negative effects of chilling.
Water Quality: Bodies of stagnant, foul water, areas with significant algae or foam, or areas polluted by livestock or waterfowl should be avoided. Comply with any signs posted by local health authorities. Swimming is not allowed in swimming pools with green, murky, or cloudy water.
Moving Water: Participants should be able to easily regain and maintain their footing in currents or waves. Areas with large waves, swiftly flowing currents, or moderate currents that flow toward the open sea or into areas of danger should be avoided.
Weather: Participants should be moved from the water to a position of safety whenever lightning or thunder threatens. Wait at least 30 minutes after the last lightning flash or thunder before leaving the shelter. Take precautions to prevent sunburn, dehydration, and hypothermia.
Life Jacket Use: Swimming in clear water over 12 feet deep, in turbid water over 8 feet deep, or in flowing water may be allowed if all participants wear properly fitted, Coast Guard-approved life jackets and the supervisor determines that swimming with life jackets is safe under the circumstances.
|4. Response Personnel (Lifeguards)|
Every swimming activity must be closely and continuously monitored by a trained rescue team on the alert for and ready to respond during emergencies. Professionally trained lifeguards satisfy this need when provided by a regulated facility or tour operator. When lifeguards are not provided by others, the adult supervisor must assign at least two rescue personnel, with additional numbers to maintain a ratio of one rescuer to every 10 participants. The supervisor must provide instruction and rescue equipment and assign areas of responsibility as outlined in Aquatics Supervision, No. 34346. The qualified supervisor, the designated response personnel, and the lookout work together as a safety team. An emergency action plan should be formulated and shared with participants as appropriate.
The lookout continuously monitors the conduct of the swim, identifies any departures from Safe Swim Defense guidelines, alerts rescue personnel as needed, and monitors the weather and environment. The lookout should have a clear view of the entire area but be close enough for easy verbal communication. The lookout must have a sound understanding of Safe Swim Defense but is not required to perform rescues. The adult supervisor may serve simultaneously as the lookout but must assign the task to someone else if engaged in activities that preclude focused observation.
|6. Ability Groups|
All youth and adult participants are designated as swimmers, beginners, or nonswimmers based on swimming ability confirmed by standardized BSA swim classification tests. Each group is assigned a specific swimming area with depths consistent with those abilities. The classification tests must be renewed annually, preferably at the beginning of the season even if the Scout has earned the Swimming merit badge.
Swimmers pass this test: Jump feetfirst into water over the head in depth. Level off and swim 75 yards in a strong manner using one or more of the following strokes: sidestroke, breaststroke, trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy resting backstroke. The 100 yards must be completed in one swim without stops and must include at least one sharp turn. After completing the swim, rest by floating.
Beginners pass this test: Jump feetfirst into water over the head in-depth, level off, and swim 25 feet on the surface. Stop, turn sharply, resume swimming, and return to the starting place. Anyone who has not completed either the beginner or swimmer tests is classified as a nonswimmer. The nonswimmer area should be no more than waist to chest deep and should be enclosed by physical boundaries such as the shore, a pier, or lines. The enclosed beginner area should contain water of standing depth and may extend to depths just over the head. The swimmer area may be up to 12 feet in depth in clear water and should be defined by floats or other markers.
|7. Buddy System|
Every participant is paired with another. Buddies stay together, monitor each other, and alert the safety team if either needs assistance or is missing. Buddies check into and out of the area together.
Buddies are normally in the same ability group and remain in their assigned area. If they are not of the same ability group, then they swim in the area assigned to the buddy with the lesser ability.
A buddy check reminds participants of their obligation to monitor their buddies and indicates how closely the buddies are keeping track of each other. Roughly every 10 minutes, or as needed to keep the buddies together, the lookout, or other person designated by the supervisor, gives an audible signal, such as a single whistle blast, and a call for “Buddies.” Buddies are expected to raise each other’s hand before completion of a slow, audible count to 10.
Buddies who take longer to find each other should be reminded of their responsibility for the other’s safety.Once everyone has a buddy, a count is made by area and compared with the total number known to be in the water. After the count is confirmed, a signal is given to resume swimming.
Rules are effective only when followed. All participants should know, understand, and respect the rules and procedures for safe swimming provided by Safe Swim Defense guidelines.
Applicable rules should be discussed prior to the outing and reviewed for all participants at the water’s edge just before the swimming activity begins. People are more likely to follow directions when they know the reasons for rules and procedures. Consistent, impartially applied rules supported by skill and good judgment provide steppingstones to a safe, enjoyable outing.
Scouting Official Safe Swim Defense Guidelines, March 2020
By adhering to Scouting’s Safe Swim Defense Plan, not just do you lower the possibility of possible injuries, you likewise improve your group’s capability to react to emergency situations.
It’s important to always go in with a strategy and also prepare for any kind of risks that may arise due to the fact that of the risk included in any kind of water task. Always bring a first-aid set, as it can be utilized to treat some of the injuries defined in section 1B.
B. Discuss the prevention and treatment of health
|Discuss the prevention and treatment of health concerns that could occur while swimming, including hypothermia, dehydration, sunburn, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, muscle cramps, hyperventilation, spinal injury, stings and bites, and cuts and scrapes.|
Hypothermia is brought on by one’s core body temperature dropping below 95 ° F. While signs of light hypothermia consist of shuddering as well as confusion, in a lot more unsafe situations the victim will certainly not have sufficient power to proceed to shiver and also may fall unconscious.
If you observe somebody is experiencing hypothermia, immediately heat them using added apparel, fire, or via body heat. Do not suddenly re-warm the target by placing them in a hot shower, as this might cause rewarming shock.
Dehydration takes place when the body does not consume enough water. Some symptoms of dehydration consist of a purged face, absence of sweat, or feeling of weakness.
This is a possibly fatal problem that can result in reduced blood dizziness, stress, and also fainting. To deal with dehydration, encourage the victim to remainder and replenish their body with water and electrolytes. Hydrate the sufferer slowly, staying clear of drastic rehydration.
Sunburns are triggered by long term sunlight exposure. To prevent sunburns, always apply sunscreen SPF 30 or greater when outdoors, as well as attempt to stay clear of being in straight sunlight for extended periods of time.
To treat a sunburn, you can cool the skin with a moist towel or use a soothing aloe vera lotion. Bear in mind to keep the sufferer hydrated, and also have them refrain from picking at the burn, should it begin peeling in the future. Sunburns should take no longer than 2 weeks to recover.
There are 2 main types of warm exhaustion:
- Water deficiency: Characterized by thirst, migraine, a feeling of weak point, and also loss of awareness.
- Salt deficiency: characterized by vomiting, muscle mass pains, and dizziness.
Warm exhaustion can progress right into a warm stroke and need to not be ignored. Immediately obtain them right into a cool location to remainder if you suspect that a person is suffering from warmth fatigue.
Have them consume alcohol plenty of fluids and take a cool shower. They may be sensitive to heats for a couple of days afterward.
Aches are triggered by unexpected, involuntary contractions in a muscle. While these convulsions tend to go away in a matter of mins, they can cause substantial pain and also impairment.
Exercise severe caution if you are swimming and are stricken by a cramp, as the discomfort may trigger you to worry and also potentially drown. Muscle aches are typically caused by a lack of water as well as electrolytes.
By taking deep breaths and gently massaging the cramped location, you can decrease some of the pain.
Heatstroke is created when one’s body temperature exceeds 104 ° F. If untreated, heatstroke can cause seizures, complications, loss of awareness, and also even a coma.
Usual symptoms of a warm stroke are pulsating headaches, wooziness, an absence of sweating in spite of warm weather conditions, or a sensation of weak point.
Promptly call 911 if you presume someone of having a heatstroke. Rest them down in a great, shady location, and attempt to lower their body temperature level.
To prevent warmth fatigue and heatstroke, stay hydrated, put on sunlight protection, and also refrain from the strenuous activity at the hottest time of day.
A spinal injury can result in damages to the mind and also the nervous system. To keep their injury from coming to be even worse, make sure the victim remains definitely still with their neck as well as back immobilized.
To recognize this sort of injury, look for indicators of swelling and also broken bones in the head or spine. If the sufferer is conscious, analyze them for signs of complication, inability to keep in mind basic truths, impaired thinking, slurred speech, or unequal individuals extension.
If they display any one of these signs or have fallen from an elevation above their own head, think that a head, neck or back injury has taken place.
Hyperventilation is triggered by breathing as well swiftly which diminishes one’s body of co2. Called over-breathing, hyperventilation can lead to feelings of faintness, a tingling sensation in one’s extremities, as well as may also trigger the target to faint.
Try to give them something buoyant to hold on to if you discover somebody is hyperventilating in the water. Do not come close to a sinking individual if they are flailing around, as, in their panic, they will likely pull you under.
The very best point to do is to wait until they work out after that draw them out as swiftly as feasible as well as wage typical rescue treatments.
Hyperventilation can result from a range of situations such as stress and anxiety, serious discomfort, hefty physical exertion, anxiety attack, or infections in the lungs.
To deal with hyperventilation, have the target breathe gradually, either via pursed lips or into a paper bag. Bouts of hyperventilation must last no more than thirty minutes, so seek medical focus if the target still hasn’t recovered by now.
Scrapes and cuts
Cuts, as well as scrapes, have a high risk of infection, so always make certain to thoroughly clean your hands before carrying out first aid. In the case of substantial blood loss, you’ll want to stop further bleeding by applying pressure to the injury and not getting rid of any of the used bandages.
You’ll want to clean up the wound with water as well as wash around the afflicted area with soap if the cut or scrape is minor. Prevent placing soap directly into the wound!
After cleansing the area, apply some antibiotic ointment and also a bandage over the injury. If the wound is deep, you should likewise take into consideration obtaining a tetanus shot, as deep cuts, as well as scrapes, have the prospective to quickly become contaminated.
Bites and stings
A sting or attack will certainly not necessitate a clinical emergency situation. These wounds ought to be cleaned with soap and also water, as well as treated with an antihistamine (Benadryl) to decrease itchiness.
Nonetheless, for some people with allergies, stings and also attacks can trigger anaphylactic reactions that have the prospective to be deadly.
Be ready to call emergency solutions if the target has trouble breathing, facial swelling, nausea, a sensation of faintness, or a quick heartbeat. Ideally, utilize an EpiPen on them. If there is no EpiPen offered, they can also be temporarily treated with an antihistamine.
2. Successfully complete the BSA swimmer test
|Before doing the following requirements, successfully complete the BSA swimmer test: Jump feetfirst into water over the head in depth. Level off and swim 75 yards in a strong manner using one or more of the following strokes: sidestroke, breaststroke, trudgen, or crawl; then swim 25 yards using an easy, resting backstroke. The 100 yards must be completed in one swim without stops and must include at least one sharp turn. After completing the swim, rest by floating.|
Your merit badge instructor needs to walk you via the techniques essential to complete the following demands.
Rapidly review the following short videos in each area to end up being familiar with the swimming techniques you’ll require to show.
Also Read: Eagle Required Merit Badges
3. Swim continuously for 150 yards using the following strokes
|Swim continuously for 150 yards using the following strokes in good form and in a strong manner: front crawl or trudgen for 25 yards, back crawl for 25 yards, sidestroke for 25 yards, breaststroke for 25 yards, and elementary backstroke for 50 yards.|
For the next requirements of the swimming merit badge you can take 10 minutes to watch this video clip quickly so you can make sure you are using the correct form when swimming.
I’ve taken the liberty of locating the shortest, most effective videos to inform you of appropriate swimming techniques, so I would certainly advise returning to this page if you ever require an additional refresher course!
4. Do the following two things
|A. Demonstrate water rescue methods by reaching with your arm or leg, by reaching with a suitable object, and by throwing lines and objects. Explain why swimming rescues should not be attempted when a reaching or throwing rescue is possible, and explain why and how a rescue swimmer should avoid contact with the victim.|
|B. With a helper and a practice victim, show a line rescue both as tender and as rescuer. The practice victim should be approximately 30 feet from shore in deep water.|
A. Demonstrate water rescue methods
B. Show a line rescue both as tender and as rescuer
5. Do the following four things
|A. Float face up in a resting position for at least one minute.|
|B. Demonstrate survival floating for at least five minutes.|
|C. While wearing a properly fitted U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket, demonstrate the HELP and huddle positions. Explain their purposes.|
|D. Explain why swimming or survival floating will hasten the onset of hypothermia in cold water|
A. Float face up in a resting position
B. Demonstrate survival floating
C. Demonstrate the HELP and huddle positions
D. Explain why swimming or survival floating will hasten the onset of hypothermia in cold water
When in water that’s cooler than your all-natural body temperature, you will rapidly use up power trying to remain warm. As the water around you that’s heated up by your body is continuously moved away by all-natural currents, you will certainly find yourself not able to remain warm.
If you find yourself in this scenario, your best option will certainly be to get out of the cold water as swiftly as possible.
Swimming or survival floating will trigger you to shed power extremely rapidly. When you run out energy, hypothermia will certainly set in.
Therefore, the best method for survival in cold water is to use any kind of clothes you need to stay buoyant and also keep warm. Wait for rescue near a big item if there are no neighboring landmasses in view once you’re out of immediate danger.
6. In water over your head, but not to exceed 10 feet, do each of the following
|A. Use the feet first method of surface diving and bring an object up from the bottom.|
|B. Do a headfirst surface dive (pike or tuck), and bring the object up again.|
|C. Do a headfirst surface dive to a depth of at least 5 feet and swim underwater for three strokes. Come to the surface, take a breath, and repeat the sequence twice.|
7. Following the guidelines set in the BSA Safe Swim Defense
|Following the guidelines set in the BSA Safe Swim Defense, in the water, at least 7 feet deep, show a standing headfirst dive from a dock or pool deck. Show a long shallow dive, also from the dock or pool deck.|
(If your state, city, or local community requires a water depth greater than 7 feet, it is important to abide by that mandate)
To do a long shallow dive, simply do the above dive pushing outside to ensure that you remain superficial in the water throughout the dive.
Technically, there is no actual interpretation of a ‘long shallow dive,’ but this is what I’ll presume the BSA meant. I’m not exactly sure what I needed to do to finish this requirement.
With this, there’s just one last requirement between you and also your new Swimming merit badge!
8. Explain the health benefits of regular aerobic exercise
|Explain the health benefits of regular aerobic exercise, and discuss why swimming is favored as both fitness and therapeutic exercise.|
Regular aerobic/cardiovascular exercise can lead to lots of wellness benefits such as enhanced endurance, lowered stress, and an overall increase to your vigor. Nonetheless, numerous kinds of physical activity can strain or otherwise hurt your body.
Swimming gives a terrific option for regular exercise, as remaining in the water suggests that your joints do not carry the ball of your weight! This reduces the chance of any kind of unintentional stress.
There are additionally several sorts of tasks you can do while swimming. From intensive sporting activities like water polo to restful types of workouts like Water Zumba and also even diving, swimming offers you a path to participate in many fun sorts of water tasks!
Type of Swimming Style
Swimming is a specific sporting activity in which one calls for to relocate the entire body inside(via) water. Sounds quite simple, does not it? In fact, a great deal of initiative goes right into responding to the drag that water generates due to its viscosity.
A person would certainly feel lighter inside water, the drag will never allow your muscular tissues unwind while moving. This aids in working out the muscles without placing the lots on bone joints. There are primarily 5 types of swimming or strokes in which you can swim.
Allow us to go over each kind’s method, benefits, muscle mass entailed, etc carefully.
This stroke is additionally known as ‘Freestyle’. It offers maximum speed with minimal initiative. Freestyle swimming consists of a Prone horizontal (face down) setting. Flutter kicks and also alternate arm step motions help develop the drive required to press the body.
Legs relocate at the same time with quick and compact kicks in the water maintaining the feet pointed. Arms are used to draw the water back alternately.
While one arm draws the water from a prolonged forward placement towards the hip, the other recuperate outside water from hip to the expanded onward placement.
Breathing is done sidewards when an arm is drawn out of the water for healing. Head comes out of the water sidewards with the shoulder as the air inhalation happens quickly. Air is breathed out inside the water itself to ensure adequate intake in the fractional time of breathing.
Front Crawl is the fastest and also most efficient stroke in swimming since:
- Drag is minimum throughout the arm recovery as a result of the sharp hands.
- There’s constantly one arm pulling the water.
Muscles used in front crawl are:
- Core and abdominal muscles in keeping the body structured and lifting it while breathing.
- Forearms muscles are utilized in drawing the water back.
- There is the application of glutes as well as hamstring for the propulsion through legs and maintain a well-balanced placement.
- Hand’s entry undersea as well as connecting additionally needs the involvement of shoulder muscle mass.
This kind of swimming stroke also takes place in a vulnerable setting. In Breastroke, the body is forced into a likely setting from a straight position to do the activity. Frog-like kicks as well as synchronized hand motion inside the water helps the body move via the water.
Legs are curved and tossed out inside the water to move the body onward. This frog-like activity (symmetrical whip kick) happens undersea.
Arm activities are synchronized and also in proportion. An arc is made by the hands from an extended ahead setting to below the chest. Unlike the freestyle stroke, hands relocate in a straight line during the recovery stage.
When the hands are under the head and the upper body is above the water surface area, breathing is done at the end of propulsion.
Breaststroke is the slowest one among all the 5 kinds of swimming strokes. Generally, the beginners have educated this method first given that the head is above the water for the majority of the time.
Muscles used in Breast Stroke are:
- To move the arms inward against the water, Pectoral and Latissimus Dorsi muscles are used.
- Glutes and Quadriceps are used to kick the legs inside the water.
The butterfly stroke entails a vulnerable setting. It is exhausting and also quite stressful relative to other kinds of swimming strokes. In this stroke, the body performs wave-like activities, relocating the upper body and hip up and down the water surface.
Legs undergo dolphin-like activity which indicates both the legs stay together and straight as you kick them in the water.
Arms motions are symmetrical again tracing an hourglass motion undersea. They begin with an expanded forward placement below the breast towards the hips.
Breathing happens while healing when both head and chest are lifted above the water.
The butterfly stroke is among one of the most challenging strokes to master. The wavinesses, dolphin kick and also the arm activities are all not so simple to find out. It is really tiring and therefore not generally utilized for entertainment or health and fitness swimmers.
Muscle mass utilized:
- When breathing, there is high utilization of the core abdominal and also reduced back muscles which raise the body out of the water.
- Glutes are made use of in the leg-movement like a dolphin.
- Pecs lasts, quads, hamstrings, calf bones, arms, shoulders, and triceps are all required extensively in this powerful stroke.
One of the oldest types of swimming stroke that can be used to rescue somebody that is drowning. It requires just one arm with unbalanced undersea arm movements as well as scissor kick. The body remains in a sidewards position during the entire stroke. The head is above the water at all times.
Legs do the scissor kicks with the top leg pushing against the water with the rear of the leg, while the reduced leg pressing with the front of the leg.
Arms motion is unbalanced as well as arbitrary. The lower arm relocations underwater from a prolonged forward placement to the upper body as well as the upper arm, which was resting on the side, bend at the arm joint as well as recoups towards the breast.
Breathing is devoid of movements once again as the head is above water throughout the stroke.
Muscular tissues on the one side of the body go through more exercise greater than the various other at once. So, the literally challenged individuals use it to carry out swimming.
Also Read: Personal Fitness Merit Badge
Congratulations! That means you’re practically certified to gain your swimming merit badge if you’ve made it this much. Good luck if you still have to take your swim test! By assessing the videos I’ve included, I make certain you’ll have no trouble ending up the needs.
If you desire to be prepared to help others, being a strong swimmer will certainly be extremely valuable. In addition to the lifesaving abilities you’ve discovered in this swimming merit badge, first aid will additionally work for saving victims in aquatic crashes.