Programming Merit Badge

Programming Merit Badge Guides

You have probably surfed the internet, played video games, or posted updates on social media more times than you can count.

But maybe you have never stopped to think about the underlying instructions that make these kinds of activities possible.

To di what they do, computers, game consoles, smartphones, and other digital devices follow instructions called programs. Each instruction or command in a program is put there by a person.

People who write programs for digital applications are called programmers. Earning the Programming merit badge will take you “behind the screen” for a look at the complex codes that make digital devices useful and fun.

Whitout programs, today’s high-tech gadgets would be little more than empty shells. But given clear instructions, digital devices can do amazing things and perform operations that would have seemed like magic to people in the past.

By the time you fulfil the requirements for the Programming merit badge, you will be able to work a little of that “magic” yourself.

And you might find yourself joining the legions of young programmers who create so much innovative software whatever the need, somebody somewhere has written a program to answer it. You could become that somebody. Happy programming!

Programming Merit Badge Requirements

programming requirement
1. Safety. Do the following:
(a) Show your counselor your current, up-to-date Cyber Chip.

(b) Discuss first aid and prevention for the types of injuries that could occur during programming activities, including repetitive stress injuries and eyestrain.
2. History. Do the following:
(a) Give a brief history of programming, including at least three milestones related to the advancement or development of programming.

(b) Discuss with your counselor the history of programming and the evolution of programming languages.
3. General knowledge. Do the following:
(a) Create a list of five popular programming languages in use today and describe which industry or industries they are primarily used in and why.

(b) Describe three different programmed devices you rely on every day.
4. Intellectual property. Do the following:
(a) Explain the four types of intellectual property used to protect computer programs.

(b) Describe the difference between licensing and owning software.

(c) Describe the differences between freeware, open source, and commercial software, and why it is important to respect the terms of use of each.
5. Projects. Do the following:
(a) With your counselor’s approval, choose a sample program. Modify the code or add a function or subroutine to it. Debug and demonstrate the modified program to your counselor.

(b) With your counselor’s approval, choose a second programming language and development environment, different from those used for requirement 5a and in a different industry from 5a. Then write, debug, and demonstrate a functioning program to your counselor, using that language and environment.

(c) With your counselor’s approval, choose a third programming language and development environment, different from those used for requirements 5a and 5b and in a different industry from 5a or 5b. Then write, debug, and demonstrate a functioning program to your counselor, using that language and environment.

(d) Explain how the programs you wrote for requirements 5a, 5b, and 5c process inputs, how they make decisions based on those inputs, and how they provide outputs based on the decision making.
6. Careers. Find out about three career opportunities that require knowledge in programming. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required. Discuss this with your counselor and explain why this career might be of interest to you.

History of Programming Language

history programming language

A program is a set of instructions that tells a processor how to do a particular task. A programmer writes the instructions. A programming language is a tool that converts the programmer’s instructions into a form the processor can understand.

The roots of modern programming language have their origins in early efforts to automate machines like calculating machines.

1. Binary Code

Before the development of modern programming language, developers used binary code, which is the “native language” of a machine/computer. A computer “speaks” in only 1’s and 0’s.

These two numerals used in binary language were numeric codes for the operations a particular computer could execute (carry out) directly.

Binary code allowed programmers to turn pieces of computer hardware (circuits) “on” (represented with a 1) or “off” (represented by the numeral 0).

All modern programming languages are built off the concept of trying to turn human commands into binary or machine code.

2. Assembly Language

Assembly Language was the next step in the evolution of modern programming. Whereas machine language consists entirely of numbers and is difficult for humans to read and write, assembly language lets a programmer use “names” or characters instead of numbers.

This slightly more human-friendly code allowed programmers to more easily program single commands for a processor.

Each command in assembly language is specific to the processor (that is, each type of processor uses its own kind of code), so assembly language lacks the portability of most modern programming language.

However, assembly language is ultimately how a processor executes all higher-lever language. A high-level language is an advanced programming language that is easier for humans to understand than binary code or assembly language and is not limited to a single processor.

3. Next-Generation Programming Language

By the 1950s and 1960s, many new languages were being introduced, including BASIC, ADA, and LISP.

These languages took programming beyond binary and assembly to allow portability of language beyond just the processor hardware of the time.

That is, programs written in these languages could run on two or more kinds of processors or with two or more kinds of operating systems.

Many, languages, such as Pascal, were created to capture new concepts of computer science. Others, such as Fortran and COBOL, were developed to meet specific needs of science or business.

Important early languages:

  • FORTRAN (Formula Translation), Originally developed in the 1950s, was among the earliest programming languages. Well suited for mathematical calculations, FORTRAN was used mainly for scientific and engineering programming.
  • COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) was popular for business data-processing on larger computers.
  • Pascal named after the mathematician Blaise Pascal put into practice the concept of structured programming. Structured programming was designed to help programmers write programs that are cleaner and easier to test, debug (remove error), and modify.

4. Programming in Objects

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a style of programming that treats concepts as “objects” that can interact with one another.

OOP Languages surfaced in the mid-1960s and allowed a software developer to write code independently of any specific software application.

The programming is done by putting together groups, or modules, of commonly used commands instructions on how to print, how to save information to a disk, and so on into complete programs.

Object oriented programming saves time because the programmer can reuse parts of programs already developed by others.

OOP concepts began appearing in the 1960s with a programming language called Simula and further evolved in the 1970s with the arrival of Smalltalk.

In the 1980s, OOP languages such as C++ and Eiffel appeared. OOP continued to grow in popularity in the 1990s, most notably with the advent of Java.

Originally known as ” C with Classes” C++ was developed starting in 1979 and is now among the most popular programming languages. Most graphical operating systems like Microsoft Windows and major-related programs were written with C++.

Java appeared in 1995 as a general-purpose programming language, designed to be machine independent.

It was intended to let software developers “write once, run anywhere” meaning that code that runs on one operating system does not need to be rewritten to run on another.

What Is Programming?

When you tal to a friend, you use a language you both understand quite well. Many times, your friend will get what you mean even if you don’t say it in so mana words.

Talking to a computer isn’t as simple because a computer will not know what you mean unless you say it exactly. A computer will execute exactly the instructions it is given nothing more and nothing less.

When these instructions are precise and clear, a computer will run them over and over and never get tired.

This flawless repetition of correct instructions, at the very high speeds that computers can run them, has led to the technological revolution of incredible devices that we use every day and are all around us, like:

  • Smartphones
  • Digital Cameras
  • Remote Control
  • Thermostats
  • Alarm Clock
  • Industrial Robots
  • Garage Door Openers
  • And even musical greeting cards.

The processors that run digital devices operate at a simple level, turning electronic circuits on and off on tiny circuit boards.

They are following instructions that someone placed there and work together with other digital components (a memory chip, en electronic display, or a motor, for instance) to perform some higher function that was designed into their operation.

So how do these instructions get translated from an idea into something that processors will understand?

This activity of converting ideas into instructions can be simple or highly complex. It’s a bit like working with uncut wood: the activity can be quick and useful, like splitting logs for fa fire.

Or it can be intricate and complex, like whittling a key whistle from a hickory branch.

Where Is Programming Used?

Programming is in almost every aspect of modern life. Almost everything you touch either uses a computing device or was made by something that was programmed.

For Example, cars have dozens (sometimes hundreds) of processors on board. Many home appliances have processors in them. Mobile phones and tablets are completely software-driven. Programs are everywhere.

Many Industries that use programming share common uses for programs, while other industries have unique needs. Several industries are discussed in the following pages.

The companion website for this merit badge has many example programs and free or low-cost software development tools.

Once you find industries that interest you, head over to the website to get up and running quickly. You will be programming in no time!

Here’s an example where programming is used.

  • Mobile Devices
  • Business Applications
  • Factory Automation
  • Robotics
  • Programming for the Internet: Web language, Database, Query Language.
  • Animation and Computer Graphics
  • Entertainment Programming
  • Science
  • Engineering
  • Automobiles and Traffic Control
  • Computer and Information Security

Intellectual Property

When you create a new product, like bicycle, you have a physical object you can touch and hold.

When you create a computer program, however, you can hold the physical media that stores the programming but you cannot hold the programming itself.

With the bicycle, the value to people in the physical object. But with computer programs, the value is in the programming, not the physical disc or other media on which the program is stored.

Over time, different kinds of rights have been developed to protect systems you cannot touch and hold. IP rights include:

  • Copyright Protection
  • Patents
  • Trademark
  • Trade Secret.

Different aspects of computer programs may be legally safeguarded by each of these forms of protection. For more information about IP Rights, you can read the programming merit badge pamphlet.

Here’s an answer that can help you answer the first requirement.

Safety During Programming Activities

You might not think that writing programs could cause injuries. But in fact, injuries from programming have much in common with sports injuries and can be prevented using some of the same techniques that athletes use.

The amin programming related injuries are repetitive stress injuries, or RSIs. Just as in athletic activities, an RSI occurs when stress is placed on a joint, pulling on the tendons and muscles around the joint.

When the stress happens repeatedly, the body does not have time to recover and becomes irritated. The body react to the irritation by increasing the amount of fluid in that area to reduce the stress placed on the tendon or muscle.

1. First Aid for RSI

  • Apply an ice pack to the injured area to help reduce pain and swelling.
  • Use elastic joint support or wrap the area firmly with an elastic bandage to limit the swelling and to protect the injury. Do not wrap it so tightly that blood circulation is restricted.
  • Rest the injured area.
  • Take an anti-inflammatory pain reliever as recommended by your physician.
  • After 24 hours, heat (hot packs, heating pad, whirlpool) may be applied.
  • As symptoms diminish, gently exercise the affected muscles or joints to help relieve remaining tenderness, stiffness, and tingling or numbness.
  • If pain is severe or persistent, seek medical attention.

2. Injury Prevention

Proper equipment and preparation are the keys to prevention. Make sure your equipment is set up properly to prevent injuries.

Also be aware the hydration isn’t solely for hiking or playing sports, programmers need to stay hydrated too. Four 8-ounce glasses of water per day is good number. Soda, juices, and other sweet drinks are not a substitute for water.

To help Prevent eyestrain, program in a well-lit room. Minimize the contrast between your monitor and the rest of the room but make sure there is no glare on the screen.

Proper posture is the key to avoiding back pain and injuries. And just as when you participate in athletic activities, taking breaks to give your body time recover and prevent strain is essential.

3. Electrical Safety

If you are writing a program on a device that is plugged into the wall for power, you are dealing with potentially deadly electronic Circuits. Keep liquids and food away from plugged-in machines, and make sure any cords are neatly stowed to prevent tripping. Be sure the equipment is properly grounded to prevent shock hazards.

It’s best to unplug the computer when it is not in use, especially during a thunderstorm. All of these suggestions protect yourandamne computer. too!

The Answer for Requirement Number 1b

Here’s a discussion on first aid and prevention for injuries that could occur during programming activities, including repetitive stress injuries and eyestrain:

Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)

Repetitive stress injuries can develop from prolonged and repetitive movements during programming. Here are some first aid and prevention measures:

Type of InjuryFirst AidPrevention
Carpal Tunnel SyndromeRest, ice packs, and over-the-counter pain relief. Seek medical attention if symptoms persist.Maintain proper ergonomics with a comfortable and supportive workstation. Take regular breaks, stretch, and perform hand exercises. Use ergonomic keyboards or wrist supports if necessary.
TendonitisRest, ice packs, compression, and elevation (RICE). Over-the-counter pain relief. Consult a healthcare professional if symptoms persist.Practice good posture, use ergonomic equipment, and take frequent breaks to rest and stretch. Avoid repetitive motions and implement ergonomic keyboard and mouse techniques.
BursitisRICE method. Over-the-counter pain relief. Seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or persist.Use proper ergonomics and avoid prolonged pressure on joints. Take breaks and practice stretching exercises. Avoid repetitive tasks that aggravate the affected area.


Eyestrain can occur due to prolonged screen exposure and improper visual habits. Here are some first aid and prevention measures:

Type of InjuryFirst AidPrevention
Eye Fatigue and DrynessTake regular breaks and focus on distant objects to relax eye muscles. Use artificial tears to alleviate dryness.Follow the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, look at an object 20 feet away for 20 seconds. Adjust the screen brightness and contrast to a comfortable level. Use proper lighting in the workspace.
Computer Vision SyndromeApply the 20-20-20 rule. Use lubricating eye drops. Adjust screen settings to reduce glare.Position the monitor at eye level and at a comfortable distance. Use an anti-glare screen protector. Blink frequently to keep the eyes moist.
HeadachesTake a break in a quiet and dark environment. Apply a cold or warm compress to the forehead. Over-the-counter pain relief if needed.Ensure proper lighting and minimize glare. Adjust the monitor’s brightness and contrast. Take regular breaks and practice relaxation techniques. Maintain good posture.

It’s important to note that these are general first aid measures, and seeking professional medical advice is recommended for severe or persistent symptoms. Incorporating proper ergonomics, regular breaks, and healthy habits can significantly reduce the risk of these injuries during programming activities.

The Answer for Requirement Number 2a,b

Brief History of Programming:

1801Joseph Marie Jacquard and the Jacquard Loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard introduced punch cards as a means of controlling patterns woven on the Jacquard loom. This early use of punched cards laid the foundation for automated control through a sequence of instructions.
1843Ada Lovelace and the Analytical Engine: Ada Lovelace wrote an algorithm for Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, making her the world’s first programmer. Her work expanded the concept of programming beyond simple calculations.
1945ENIAC and Electronic Computing: The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was developed, marking one of the first general-purpose electronic computers. It required manually connecting wires and setting switches to program it, paving the way for future programmable computers.

Evolution of Programming Languages:

The history of programming languages has seen significant advancements and the development of various programming paradigms. Here’s an overview:

PeriodDescriptionExamples of Programming Languages
1950s-1960sMachine Language and Assembly Language: Early programming was done directly in machine language, but assembly language was soon developed to provide more human-readable instructions.Machine Language, Assembly Language (e.g., FORTRAN, COBOL)
1960s-1970sHigh-Level Languages and Structured Programming: High-level languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL, were developed to provide more abstraction and improve programmer productivity. Structured programming concepts, like control structures and modular programming, were introduced.FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, BASIC, Pascal
1970s-1980sProcedural and Object-Oriented Programming: Procedural programming languages focused on reusable code blocks and procedures. Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages introduced the concept of objects and classes, allowing for modular and reusable code through encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.C, Pascal, C++, Smalltalk, Objective-C
1980s-1990sFunctional and Logic Programming: Functional programming languages emphasized immutability and the use of pure functions. Logic programming languages, like Prolog, focused on logical inference and rule-based programming.Lisp, ML, Prolog
1990s-PresentScripting and Web Development: The rise of the internet led to the development of scripting languages for web development, such as JavaScript, PHP, and Python. These languages enabled dynamic and interactive websites.JavaScript, PHP, Python, Ruby

The evolution of programming languages reflects the increasing complexity of programming tasks and the need for more expressive and efficient ways to develop software. Each programming language has its strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of language depends on the requirements of the task at hand.

The Answer for Requirement Number 3a,b

Popular Programming Languages and Their Industries:

Programming LanguageIndustry(ies)Description
PythonWeb Development, Data Science, Artificial IntelligencePython is a versatile language used in web development frameworks like Django and Flask. It’s also popular in data science and machine learning due to its rich libraries and ease of use. Python’s simplicity and readability make it a preferred choice for various industries.
JavaScriptWeb Development, Mobile App DevelopmentJavaScript is primarily used for front-end web development, enabling interactive and dynamic website features. It’s also widely used for mobile app development using frameworks like React Native and Ionic. JavaScript’s compatibility with web browsers makes it essential for the modern web.
JavaEnterprise Software, Android App DevelopmentJava is commonly used for building enterprise-level applications, including large-scale systems, server-side development, and business software. It’s also the primary language for developing Android apps. Java’s platform independence and extensive libraries contribute to its popularity in these industries.
C++Game Development, Systems ProgrammingC++ is often used in resource-intensive applications such as game development, real-time systems, and low-level programming. Its high performance and direct hardware control make it suitable for industries that require efficiency and speed, like gaming and embedded systems.
RubyWeb Development, ScriptingRuby is favored for web development, especially with the Ruby on Rails framework, known for its simplicity and rapid development capabilities. It’s also popular for scripting tasks, automation, and prototyping. Ruby’s elegant syntax and focus on developer productivity make it a choice for agile web development.

Everyday Programmed Devices:

  1. Smartphones: Smartphones rely on complex programming to provide various functionalities, such as making calls, running applications, accessing the internet, and interacting with sensors. They use a combination of programming languages like Java (Android) or Swift (iOS) to create mobile applications and provide a user-friendly interface.
  2. Smart Home Devices: Devices like smart thermostats, voice assistants (e.g., Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant), and smart speakers are programmed to control and automate household tasks. They use programming languages such as Python, JavaScript, and C++ to enable interactions, process voice commands, and connect with other devices.
  3. ATMs (Automated Teller Machines): ATMs are programmed devices that provide banking services such as cash withdrawals, fund transfers, and balance inquiries. They rely on programming languages like C and C++ to manage the hardware interfaces, network connectivity, and secure transactions.

These programmed devices have become integral parts of our daily lives, enhancing convenience and efficiency through their functionality and automation.

The Answer for Requirement Number 4a,b

Four Types of Intellectual Property for Protecting Computer Programs:

Type of Intellectual PropertyDescription
CopyrightCopyright provides automatic protection to original works of authorship, including computer programs. It grants exclusive rights to the creator, preventing others from copying, distributing, or modifying the program without permission. It protects the expression of the program’s code, structure, and organization.
PatentA patent protects inventions, including novel and non-obvious software algorithms or methodologies. Software patents cover new and useful processes, machines, or compositions of matter in the field of software. They provide exclusive rights to the inventor for a limited period, typically 20 years, during which others cannot use, make, sell, or distribute the patented invention.
TrademarkTrademarks protect brand names, logos, and symbols associated with software products or services. They prevent others from using similar marks that may cause confusion or dilute the brand’s distinctiveness. Trademarks can be registered to gain additional legal protection, but unregistered trademarks may still have some level of protection under common law.
Trade SecretTrade secrets protect valuable and confidential information related to computer programs, such as algorithms, formulas, designs, or proprietary techniques. Unlike other types of intellectual property, trade secrets require active measures to maintain secrecy. If properly protected, trade secrets can provide indefinite protection as long as the information remains confidential and has economic value.

Difference between Licensing and Owning Software:

OwnershipThe software is owned by the copyright holder or software developer. Users obtain a license to use the software under specified terms and conditions.The user has full ownership rights to the software, including the right to modify, distribute, and use it without limitations, as long as it complies with applicable laws and regulations.
Usage RightsUsers have limited rights granted by the license agreement, which may include restrictions on usage, distribution, or modification.Users have complete control over the software and can use, modify, distribute, or even sell it, subject to any applicable intellectual property laws and any contractual agreements.
Control and UpdatesThe software provider retains control over updates, bug fixes, and new features. Users typically receive updates and support for a limited time or as specified in the license agreement.The user has control over updates, bug fixes, and modifications. They can decide when and how to update the software, or even continue using an older version if desired.
Legal ResponsibilitiesUsers must adhere to the terms and conditions specified in the license agreement, including any usage restrictions or limitations. Unauthorized use or violation of the license terms may result in legal consequences.Users have legal responsibilities for their use of the software, such as complying with intellectual property laws and not infringing on others’ rights. They are responsible for any modifications, distribution, or usage of the software within legal boundaries.

In summary, licensing software involves obtaining permission to use software under specific conditions defined in a license agreement, while owning software grants users full ownership and control over the software, subject to applicable laws and regulations.

The Answer for Requirement Number 4c

Differences between Freeware, Open Source, and Commercial Software:

AspectFreewareOpen SourceCommercial Software
CostFreeware is available at no cost to users.Open source software is often available for free, allowing users to use, modify, and distribute it freely.Commercial software is typically sold for a price, and users need to purchase a license to use it legally.
Source Code AvailabilityThe source code may or may not be available. If available, it is not necessarily open for modification or redistribution.Open source software provides access to the source code, allowing users to study, modify, and distribute it.Commercial software generally does not provide access to the source code. It is proprietary and protected by copyright.
License TermsFreeware may have specific terms of use, such as restrictions on redistribution or modifications, outlined in the license agreement.Open source software is typically licensed under open source licenses (e.g., GNU General Public License), which provide freedoms to use, modify, and distribute the software under certain conditions.Commercial software is governed by license agreements that specify permitted uses, restrictions, and obligations for users. Violating the license terms can lead to legal consequences.
Support and UpdatesSupport and updates for freeware can vary. Some freeware may have limited or no support, while others may have active community support. Updates may or may not be provided.Open source software often benefits from active community support, with developers contributing updates and providing support through forums and communities.Commercial software usually includes support services, such as technical assistance and updates, which may be time-limited or require additional fees or subscriptions.
Software QualityFreeware quality can vary greatly, as it may not undergo extensive testing or have dedicated development teams.Open source software benefits from community collaboration and peer review, often resulting in high-quality software with frequent updates and bug fixes.Commercial software is typically developed by dedicated teams with rigorous quality assurance processes, aiming for stability and reliability.
Licensing RestrictionsFreeware licenses may impose restrictions on the software’s usage, such as prohibiting commercial use or limiting the number of installations.Open source licenses provide specific freedoms and obligations, such as sharing modifications under the same license or giving credit to the original authors.Commercial software licenses strictly define permitted uses, such as limiting the number of installations, prohibiting reverse engineering, or restricting distribution.

Importance of Respecting Terms of Use:

Respecting the terms of use for each type of software is important for several reasons:

  1. Legal Compliance: Abiding by the terms of use ensures that you are using the software legally, avoiding potential copyright infringement or legal consequences.
  2. Respecting Developers’ Rights: Respecting licensing terms acknowledges and respects the rights of software developers and creators. It ensures they receive appropriate credit and recognition for their work.
  3. Maintaining Software Ecosystem: Adhering to terms of use helps foster a healthy software ecosystem. By respecting licensing restrictions and obligations, users contribute to the sustainability and development of different software models, whether freeware, open source, or commercial.
  4. Supporting Software Development: Commercial software purchases support the ongoing development and maintenance of software products, allowing developers to invest in research, updates, and improvements. For open source software, adhering to open source licenses and contributing back to the community helps maintain and improve the software for everyone’s benefit.
  5. Encouraging Innovation: Respecting licensing terms fosters an environment that encourages innovation. It ensures that developers have incentives to create and share software, leading to a thriving and diverse software landscape.

By respecting the terms of use, users contribute to the overall integrity and sustainability of the software ecosystem. It promotes fairness, encourages collaboration, and allows for the continued growth and innovation of software development models.

It is important to review and understand the terms of use for each software you utilize, whether it’s freeware, open source, or commercial, and to adhere to the rights, restrictions, and obligations specified by the respective licenses.

The Answer for Requirement Number 5a

I can provide you with an example of how you can modify a simple Python program. Please note that you would need to run the code on your own system to see the changes and demonstrate it to your counselor.

Here’s an example program in Python that calculates the factorial of a number:

def factorial(n):
    if n == 0:
        return 1
        return n * factorial(n - 1)

# Main program
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
result = factorial(num)
print("Factorial of", num, "is", result)

To modify this program, let’s add a function that checks if a number is prime or not. Here’s an updated version of the program:

def factorial(n):
    if n == 0:
        return 1
        return n * factorial(n - 1)

def is_prime(n):
    if n < 2:
        return False
    for i in range(2, int(n**0.5) + 1):
        if n % i == 0:
            return False
    return True

# Main program
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
result = factorial(num)
print("Factorial of", num, "is", result)

if is_prime(num):
    print(num, "is a prime number.")
    print(num, "is not a prime number.")

In the modified program, we added the is_prime function that checks if a number is prime or not. After calculating the factorial, the program will now display whether the entered number is prime or not.

Remember to run the program on your own system to see the modifications and demonstrate it to your counselor.

The Answer for Requirement Number 5b

Let’s choose the programming language JavaScript and a web development environment to demonstrate a program in a different industry.

Here’s an example of a simple JavaScript program that calculates the area of a circle:

function calculateArea(radius) {
  return Math.PI * radius * radius;

// Main program
var radius = parseFloat(prompt("Enter the radius of the circle:"));
var area = calculateArea(radius);

console.log("The area of the circle with radius", radius, "is", area.toFixed(2));

In this program, we define a function calculateArea that takes the radius as input and returns the area of the circle. The main program prompts the user to enter the radius, calls the calculateArea function, and then displays the calculated area in the console.

To run this program, you can create an HTML file with the following code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <title>Calculate Circle Area</title>
  <script src="script.js"></script>
  <h1>Calculate Circle Area</h1>
    // Call the main program function

Save the JavaScript code in a file named script.js in the same directory as the HTML file. Open the HTML file in a web browser, and you should see a prompt asking you to enter the radius of the circle. After entering the radius, the calculated area will be displayed in the browser’s console.

Remember to set up a suitable development environment with a web browser and an editor or IDE that supports JavaScript. Run the program and demonstrate its functionality to your counselor.

The Answer for Requirement Number 5c

Let’s choose the programming language C# and a desktop application development environment to demonstrate a program in a different industry.

Here’s an example of a simple C# program that calculates the sum of two numbers:

using System;

namespace CalculatorApp
    class Program
        static void Main(string[] args)
            Console.WriteLine("Enter two numbers:");
            int num1 = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
            int num2 = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
            int sum = num1 + num2;
            Console.WriteLine("The sum of {0} and {1} is {2}", num1, num2, sum);

In this program, we use C# to create a console application. The Main method prompts the user to enter two numbers, reads the input, calculates the sum, and displays the result on the console.

To run this program, you’ll need to set up a C# development environment. You can use an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like Visual Studio or a text editor like Visual Studio Code along with the .NET framework.

Once you have the environment set up, create a new C# project and add the above code into the Program.cs file. Build and run the program, and you will see a console window prompting you to enter two numbers. After entering the numbers, the program will calculate and display their sum on the console.

Remember to demonstrate the functionality of the program in the chosen C# development environment to your counselor.

The Answer for Requirement Number 5d

Let’s discuss how the programs written for requirements 5a, 5b, and 5c process inputs, make decisions, and provide outputs:

Requirement 5a: In the modified Python program to calculate the factorial of a number, the program takes user input for the desired number. It then processes the input by calling the factorial function, which recursively calculates the factorial of the given number. The program makes a decision based on the input by evaluating the condition in the factorial function to determine if the number is equal to 0. If it is, the function returns 1; otherwise, it performs the calculation recursively. Finally, the program provides the output by displaying the factorial value on the console.

Requirement 5b: In the JavaScript program to calculate the area of a circle, the program prompts the user to input the radius of the circle. It processes the input by calling the calculateArea function, which takes the radius as an argument and calculates the area using the formula Math.PI * radius * radius. The program then makes a decision to display the calculated area. It provides the output by using console.log to display the result in the browser’s console.

Requirement 5c: In the C# program to calculate the sum of two numbers, the program asks the user to input two numbers. It processes the input by reading the numbers using Console.ReadLine() and converting them to integers. It then adds the numbers together to calculate the sum. The program makes a decision to display the sum by using Console.WriteLine to output the result to the console.

In all three cases, the programs take user input, process the input according to the defined logic or calculations, make decisions based on the input or intermediate results, and provide outputs accordingly. The output is presented to the user through the console or browser’s console in the case of the JavaScript program.

These programs showcase the fundamental concepts of accepting inputs, performing operations, making decisions based on the inputs, and producing outputs in different programming languages and development environments.

The Answer for Requirement Number 6

Here are three career opportunities that require knowledge in programming:

  1. Software Developer/Engineer: Software developers/engineers design, develop, and maintain software applications. They analyze user needs, write code, test and debug software, and collaborate with team members to create functional and efficient software solutions. They may specialize in areas such as web development, mobile app development, or artificial intelligence.Education, Training, and Experience: Most software developers/engineers have a bachelor’s degree in computer science, software engineering, or a related field. They also gain practical programming skills through internships, personal projects, or coding bootcamps. Continuous learning and staying updated with new technologies are important in this field.
  2. Data Scientist: Data scientists analyze complex data sets to derive meaningful insights and develop models for predictive analysis. They use programming languages and statistical tools to extract, clean, and transform data, and apply machine learning techniques to uncover patterns and make data-driven decisions.Education, Training, and Experience: A data scientist typically holds a master’s or doctoral degree in a field like computer science, data science, or statistics. They should have a strong foundation in programming, mathematics, and statistics. Experience with data manipulation, statistical analysis, and machine learning frameworks is valuable.
  3. Game Developer: Game developers create interactive digital games for various platforms. They design game mechanics, develop game engines, and implement graphics, audio, and user interfaces. They collaborate with artists, designers, and programmers to create engaging and immersive gaming experiences.Education, Training, and Experience: While a formal education in game development or computer science is beneficial, many game developers also gain experience through independent game development projects or internships. Proficiency in programming languages like C++, Unity, or Unreal Engine is important in this field.

Among these career options, I would like to focus on the role of a Software Developer/Engineer. The ability to design and create software applications that can solve real-world problems

is highly appealing to me. The thought of bringing ideas to life through coding, collaborating with a team, and contributing to the development of innovative solutions excites me.

To pursue a career as a Software Developer/Engineer, I understand that a strong educational foundation is crucial. Obtaining a bachelor’s degree in computer science or software engineering would provide me with the necessary theoretical knowledge and programming skills.

Additionally, gaining practical experience through internships or personal projects would help me refine my coding abilities and understand real-world software development practices.

Continuous learning is a key aspect of the field, as technology evolves rapidly. Staying updated with emerging programming languages, frameworks, and industry best practices is important to thrive as a Software Developer/Engineer.

I am eager to engage in lifelong learning, attend workshops, and participate in professional development opportunities to enhance my skills and stay ahead in the rapidly changing tech landscape.

Furthermore, the collaborative nature of software development aligns with my strengths and interests. I enjoy working in teams, sharing ideas, and solving problems collectively. The satisfaction of seeing the impact of the software I help create and witnessing its value to end-users motivates me.

Overall, a career as a Software Developer/Engineer allows me to combine my passion for coding, problem-solving, and teamwork. It offers endless opportunities for growth, innovation, and making a positive impact on society through technology.

I am excited about the prospect of pursuing this career path and contributing to the ever-evolving field of software development.

I might be a Mechanical Engineer on the paper, but I was an Eagle Scout enthusiast since childhood.