Aviation Merit Badge – Flying! For most of history, people have dreamed of flying, imagining how it would feel to soar through the sky like an eagle or hover in midair like a hummingbird, to float on unseen currents, free of Earth’s constant tug, able to travel great distances and to rise above any obstacle.
Today, through aviation, we can not only join the birds but also fly farther, faster, and higher than they ever could. Today, aircraft routinely fly across the country, around the world, and even beyond Earth’s atmosphere.
But our ability to fly is relatively new. It has been only in the last 100 years or so that people have mastered flight. Aviation’s progress since then has been nearly as breathtaking as a ride in the latest Air Force jet.
Aviation Merit Badge Requirements
- Do the following:
- Define “aircraft.” Describe some kinds and uses of aircraft today. Explain the operation of piston, turboprop, and jet engines.
- Point out on a model airplane the forces that act on an airplane in flight.
- Explain how an airfoil generates lift, how the primary control surfaces (ailerons, elevators, and rudder) affect the airplane’s attitude, and how a propeller produces thrust.
- Demonstrate how the control surfaces of an airplane are used for takeoff, straight climb, level turn, climbing turn, descending turn, straight descent, and landing.
- Explain the following: the sport pilot, the recreational pilot, and the private pilot certificates; the instrument rating.
- Do TWO of the following:
- Take a flight in an aircraft, with your parent’s permission. Record the date, place, type of aircraft, and duration of the flight, and report on your impressions of the flight.
- Under supervision, perform a preflight inspection of a light airplane.
- Obtain and learn how to read an aeronautical chart. Measure a true course on the chart. Correct it for magnetic variation, compass deviation, and wind drift to determine a compass heading.
- Using one of many flight simulator software packages available for computers, “fly” the course and heading you established in requirement 2c or another course you have plotted.
- Explain the purposes and functions of the various instruments found in a typical single-engine aircraft: attitude indicator, heading indicator, altimeter, airspeed indicator, turn and bank indicator, vertical speed indicator, compass, navigation (GPS and VOR) and communication radios, tachometer, oil pressure gauge, and oil temperature gauge.
- Create an original poster of an aircraft instrument panel. Include and identify the instruments and radios discussed in requirement 2e.
- Do ONE of the following:
- Build and fly a fuel-driven or battery-powered electric model airplane. Describe safety rules for building and flying model airplanes. Tell safety rules for use of glue, paint, dope, plastics, fuel, and battery pack.
- Build a model FPG-9. Get others in your troop or patrol to make their own model, then organize a competition to test the precision of flight and landing of the models.
- Do ONE of the following:
- Visit an airport. After the visit, report on how the facilities are used, how runways are numbered, and how runways are determined to be “active.”
- Visit a Federal Aviation Administration facility a control tower, terminal radar control facility, air route traffic control center, or Flight Standards District Office. (Phone directory listings are under U.S. Government Offices, Transportation Department, Federal Aviation Administration. Call in advance.) Report on the operation and your impressions of the facility.
- Visit an aviation museum or attend an air show. Report on your impressions of the museum or show.
- Find out about three career opportunities in aviation. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.
The History of Flight
The first successful manned flight took place on November 21, 1783, in Paris, France-and it did not involve an airplane.
That day, brothers Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier sent two men up in a hot air balloon they had made out of cotton and paper. The men stayed aloft for 25 minutes and traveled about 5 miles.
From lighter-than-air balloons, early aviators progressed to the original heavier-than-air flying machines-gliders or sailplanes. In 1853, English engineer Sir George Cayley built the world’s first real glider, which carried his terrified coachman across a small valley.
Later in the century, German engineer Otto Lilienthal built a series of gliders in which he made regular, controlled flights.
Inspired by Lilienthal’s gliders, two bicycle mechanics from Ohio, Orville and Wilbur Wright, began studying aviation and experimenting with their own aircraft.
On December 17, 1903, they ushered in the aviation age when Orville took off from a sand dune near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, traveled 120 feet in 12 seconds, and landed safely. Those 12 seconds changed history.
Aviation grew quickly in the decades after the Wright brother’s historic flight. In 1909, Glenn Curtiss made headlines for flying 142 miles from New York City to Albany, New York. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
In 1938, Howard Hughes and his crew flew around the world in just under four days.
And in 1969, Eagle Scout Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon. Many people who watched Armstrong on television that day had heard about Lindbergh’s flight on the radio and read about the Wright brothers in the newspaper.
Types of Aircraft
The term aircraft is broad, covering nearly everything that enables people to fly through the air.
Some aircraft (balloons, blimps) are lighter than air others, like airplanes and helicopters, are heavier than air. (Missiles, rockets, and vehicles like the space shuttle are called spacecraft since they are designed to fly outside Earth’s atmosphere.)
Here are some of the kinds of aircraft used today. Each of these aircraft has been designed to do a particular job. You are probably already familiar with many of them.
- Commercial airliners.
- Cargo airplanes (including those used by express delivery services).
- Military bombers, fighters, and surveillance aircraft.
- Military supply transports.
- Military and civilian helicopters and autogyros.
- Personal use and training airplanes of various types.
- Airplanes owned by corporations to transport personnel.
- Balloons for sport or for exploring the atmosphere.
- Sailplanes, amphibians, and seaplanes.
- Blimps are used for advertising in the sky and as television camera platforms.
- Aerobatic airplanes for exhibitions.
- Crop sprayers.
- Fire fighting “smoke jumper” transports and “borate bombers”.
Even if you have never boarded an airplane, your life is affected by aircraft every day. Cargo planes carry many of the packages you receive in the mail.
Helicopters make possible the traffic reports that identify trouble spots for commuters. Blimps provide bird’s-eye views of sporting events. Military jets protect the skies above your home.
Other uses of aircraft may surprise you. Helicopters can be used to dry out the field before a baseball or football game.
Hovering a few feet off the field, their giant rotors dry the surface with their powerful downwash of air, Construction companies use helicopters to “top off” tall buildings by lifting a structure’s final pieces into place. Large transport planes serve as aerial pumper trucks, fighting forest fires.
Most uses of aircraft are more familiar, such as the transportation of passengers. Aircraft make it possible for business people to attend meetings in faraway cities and return home in time for dinner.
They allow families to take vacations on the other side of the country without spending endless days in a car. Airplanes also allow people to conduct business internationally and visit other countries without taking long rides on a ship,
Geologists, surveyors, and forest rangers use helicopters and small airplanes to reach remote places.
In some large cities, helicopters make regular flights from the congested business district to the airport, greatly reducing travel time. In rural areas, small airplanes sometimes serve as taxis in areas not served by major airlines and airports.
2. Firefighting and Public Safety
The USDA Forest Service spots forest fires from airplanes as well as from lookout towers. And once a fire is spotted, aircraft swing into action.
Helicopters bring firefighters and equipment to remote areas and can extract them quickly when the need arises.
Airplanes called borate bombers to drop water or flame-retardant agents (which once included borate salts) on fires from above.
Helicopters are the unsung heroes of many rescues at sea and in rugged mountain regions. In the emergency medical field, paramedics use helicopters as air ambulances to quickly transport severely injured people from accident sites to hospitals.
3. The Military
Aircraft are among the U.S. military’s most important tools, and airpower continues to play a decisive role in conflicts around the globe. But aircraft do more than drop bombs on sites far behind enemy lines.
They also carry out surveillance, serve as flying ambulances, and transport troops and equipment. The C-17 Globemaster III can carry 170,900 pounds of cargo and fly 2,800 nautical miles without refueling.
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4. Mail and Packages
Small airplanes have been used to carry mail since aviation’s earliest days; the U.S. government started airmail service in 1918.
Even today, winged carriers of mail and supplies may be the only regular face-to-face contact some people in remote areas have with the outside world.
5. Law Enforcement
The airplane’s speed and maneuverability are valuable to many law enforcement agencies.
Federal and state law enforcement agencies like the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, narcotics inspectors, and game wardens all use aircraft for patrol work, transporting officers, and chasing suspects.
Crop-spraying airplanes have been a common sight in the rural sky for many years. Today, helicopters are often used to spray crops because the “wash” from their rotors tends to distribute the spray more widely, even blowing it up to the underside of the crop’s leaves.
Airplanes haul perishable items to market and help ranchers patrol fences, herd cattle, and bring feed to animals in distant pastures.
Some farmers hire aviation companies for these services, but so much of the work is done by farmers themselves that they have formed an organization called the International Flying Farmers.
7. Aerial Photography
Aerial photography has been important for mapmakers and newsmen since the first intrepid cameraman leaned over the side of one of the early flying machines with his box camera.
Now, much filming is done by helicopters because they can furnish a stationary platform in the sky for the camera operator.
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How Airplanes Work
When people first dreamed of flying, they looked to the birds as models. Greek mythology includes the story of Daedelus and Icarus, who made wings out of wax and feathers to escape from the island of Crete. (Unfortunately, the story says, Icarus flew too close to the sun, which melted his wings)
Even as late as the 19th century, inventors were still trying to imitate birds with elaborate flying machines that never quite got off the ground.
Sir George Cayley had a better idea. His glider had fixed wings and a moveable tailplane. What it did not have was an engine-nobody had yet figured out how to make one that was light and powerful enough for aviation.
Nonetheless, his ideas led more or less directly to the 1903 Wright Flyer, to the fighter planes of World War II, and to the
massive airliners of today, To understand how an airplane works, you need to learn about several different concepts:
- The forces that affect an airplane.
- What airfoils are and how they work.
- The control surfaces a pilot can use.
- And the types of engines that give an airplane power.
For more information about airplane work, you can read the provided pamphlet.
All About Instrumentation
The first aviators flew by the seat of their pants, relying on their senses to tell them how high they were and whether they were climbing or descending.
This style of flying was pretty easy because early airplanes had open cockpits and flew both low and slow. However, as planes got faster and pilots started flying at night, they found they could not always trust their senses.
So airplane builders began adding instruments to indicate the plane’s altitude, its heading, and whether it was climbing or descending, turning or flying straight, in level flight or banking
Modern airplanes have instruments and radios to tell the pilot everything about the aircraft’s position and condition. With them, the pilot hardly has to look out the windshield to fly the plane.
That is not to say that pilots do not look outside, however. In clear skies, they rely on both their instruments and their eyes to determine the plane’s position. When flying in clouds, however, they must rely solely on instruments.
The seven flight instruments mentioned in requirement 2f :
- The attitude indicator
- Heading indicator
- Airspeed indicator
- Turn and bank indicator
- Vertical speed indicator
- And compass-tell the pilot about the plane’s altitude, speed, direction, altitude, and rate of climb or descent.
The navigation/communication radios (nav coms), discussed more in the next chapter, permit the pilot to guide the aircraft directly and safely to its destination in both clear and cloudy conditions.
The last three instruments-tachometer, the oil pressure gauge, and the oil temperature gauge-tell a pilot how the engine is operating. Let’s look at the flight instruments first.
1. Attitude Indicator
The attitude indicator or “artificial horizon lets the pilot get an immediate picture of the airplane’s attitude, which is its position relative to Earth’s horizon.
Attached to a gyroscope is a face with a contrasting horizon line on it. This line represents Earth’s actual horizon. A miniature airplane on the housing moves with respect to this artificial horizon, just like the real plane moves with respect to the real horizon.
The attitude indicator shows both bank (roll) attitude, which is the relationship between the wings and the horizon, and pitch attitude, which is the relationship between the nose and the horizon.
2. Heading Indicator
The heading indicator can take different forms but is basically a gyroscope that shows the plane’s heading. The simplest heading indicators have to be set to match the magnetic compass.
Others have their own compass, to which they are “slaved” (connected to and directed by the instrument), allowing the setting to be maintained automatically.
The altimeter tells the pilot how high the aircraft is flying. To steer clear of mountains, buildings, and such obstructions as television towers, the pilot must know the altitude at all times.
Charts and air traffic rules indicate the minimum heights pilots must maintain. There are also specific altitudes to fly based on the direction of flight, which reduces the risk of collisions when pilots are flying by visual flight rules in good weather.
During times of reduced visibility, pilots are assigned altitudes by air traffic control.
The altimeter is simply a barometer that measures the air pressure and converts that measurement into altitude.
Altitude references are generally above sea level, so the pilot has to know the height above sea level of the terrain or obstructions to be sure the plane is at a safe altitude.
The altimeter has a knob for adjusting the instrument to take into account changes in barometric pressure at different points of the flight as reported by weather stations.
4. Airspeed Indicator
The airspeed indicator is the airplane equivalent of a car’s speedometer, telling the pilot how fast the plane is traveling through the air.
Like the altimeter, the airspeed indicator works by measuring air pressure, but the airspeed indicator measures the plane’s impact on the air (ram air pressure).
In other words, the airspeed indicator registers the velocity of air molecules striking a sensor as the airplane moves through the air. This is translated into speed in knots or nautical miles per hour, the standard unit of velocity used in aviation.
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As a Scout, you are familiar with the magnetic compass and probably have used one many times. The compass used in aircraft is not much different, although flight poses special problems in reading a compass.
You may know that the magnetic pole is not at the North Pole, or the exact top of Earth. Instead, it is around 800 miles away, which leads to variations in determining true headings.
Second, Earth is not uniformly magnetized. In some areas, the compass may vary many degrees from magnetic north.
Finally, the metal and electrical equipment within an aircraft can throw off the compass. A pilot must consider variation and deviation, as well as wind when determining what compass reading will get the airplane to its destination.
6. Turn and Bank Indicator
The tum and bank indicator is two instruments in one. It tells the pilot when the plane is turning and how well the turn is being executed-whether there is too much or too little bank for the rate of turn.
The pilot may also check for balance and coordination in straight and level flight The turn needle always deflects in the direction of the turn and indicates the rate at which the aircraft is turning about its vertical (yaw) axis.
Most modern airplanes have a variation of this instrument called a turn coordinator. It looks a little like an attitude indicator but gives information only about turn, not about pitch attitude.
The ball part of the turn indicator is simply an agate or steel ball that moves freely inside a curved, sealed glass tube filled with liquid.
The lowest point of the glass tube is in the middle of the instrument. In straight and level flight, gravity keeps the ball there, centered between two lines. INFORM
In a turn, if the aircraft is neither slipping nor skidding, the 52e ball will be kept centered by centrifugal force.
If the aircraft were in a slip (the tail sagging into the turn), the ball would fall to the low side of the instrument. In a skid (the tail swinging wide outside the turn), the ball would be to the high side.
7. Vertical Speed Indicator
In addition to knowing the airspeed, the pilot must know how rapidly the aircraft is climbing or descending.
The vertical speed indicator, or VSI, registers how fast the barometric pressure is changing and converts this information to a speed measured in hundreds of feet per minute.
This instrument is important because it is difficult to judge rates of climb or descent using only our human senses.
In addition to the flight instruments, the tachometer, the oil pressure gauge, and the temperature gauges also tell the pilot how the plane’s engine is performing.
You may have seen a tachometer on the dashboard of a car. Its purpose is to tell the driver exactly how fast the engine is running.
In an airplane with a piston engine and a fixed-pitch propeller, the tachometer has two main purposes: to show whether the propeller is turning at the recommended speed for a particular maneuver and to indicate whether the engine is operating normally.
For example, the airplane’s designer might have determined that the best cruising speed for the engine is 2,300 revolutions per minute (rpm). so the pilot would set the throttle accordingly while cruising.
The designer would also have recommended certain rpm settings for climbing and descending
The tachometer also tells the pilot something about the engine’s condition. Suppose a pilot is preparing for flight and finds that, with the throttle open all the way. the tachometer reads only 1,800 rpm when it should read 2,400. That is a good indication something is wrong with the engine.
9. Oil Pressure Gauge
An airplane’s oil pressure gauge does the same thing as the oil pressure gauge in a car. It shows the pilot the pressure of the oil in the engine, which reveals a great deal about the health of the engine, Dropping oil pressure is a sure sign of engine trouble.
10. Temperature Gauges
The temperature gauges are another indicator of the engine’s health. They measure the temperature of oil and the cylinder heads and show whether the engine is running well, too warm, or too cold.
The instruments are generally marked with a green area and a red line. If the needle is “in the green,” that is good. If it passes the red line, there is a problem because that line marks the maximum allowable operating temperature.
Careers in Aviation
Aviation offers a nearly unlimited variety of career opportunities many of which do not directly involve airplanes.
Experts in the field estimate that for every person who flies an aircraft, there are 600 others who fill aviation-related positions. The Federal Aviation Administration has established seven categories of aviation employment.
- Pilots and flight engineers
- Flight attendants
- Airline non-flying careers
- Aircraft manufacturing
- Airport careers
- Government careers
Nearly all workers in the aerospace industry must be highly skilled. Those involved in the manufacture, flying, and maintenance of aircraft and spacecraft are especially well-trained.
The quality of study and work that might give you just a passing grade will not be good enough for a position in aviation.
If you are serious about a career in aviation, you should begin planning for it when you enter high school because you may need a background in such fields as mathematics and physics.
For many positions, college degrees are necessary, again usually with an emphasis on math and science. Depending on the career you want to pursue, you may choose a college that offers a specialized aviation program.
In addition, many commercial pilots earn their wings as members of the U.S. armed forces. Your guidance counselor can help you learn more about how to prepare for an aviation career.
The FAA offers several publications detailing aviation career areas. For information, visit the FAA Web site, or write to the Superintendent of Documents, Retail Distribution Division Consigned Branch, 8610 Cherry Lane.
Laurel, MD 20707 For more information on aviation-related university studies. contact the University Aviation Association.
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The Answer for Requirement Number 1a
An “aircraft” is any vehicle designed for travel or operation in the air. This includes planes, helicopters, gliders, drones, and many more. These various kinds of aircraft are used for diverse purposes today. Here’s a simple breakdown:
- Planes: For transporting passengers and cargo, military operations, and more.
- Helicopters: Used in emergency services, military, tourism, etc.
- Gliders: Often used for recreation, sports, or training.
- Drones: Utilized in photography, surveillance, and agriculture.
Now, let’s look at the different types of engines that power some of these aircraft:
- Piston Engine: This engine works on the basic principle of the internal combustion. Air and fuel are mixed and ignited in a cylinder, pushing a piston that turns the propeller. Most small, general aviation aircraft use piston engines.
- Turboprop Engine: Turboprop engines utilize a gas turbine to drive a propeller. The turbine’s exhaust gases turn a shaft connected to the propeller, making it an efficient choice for medium-range flights.
- Jet Engine: Jet engines suck in air at the front, compress it, mix it with fuel, and ignite it. The hot gases then blast out the back, propelling the aircraft forward. These engines are used in commercial airliners and military jets for their high speeds and efficiencies.
These engines have revolutionized the way we fly, each serving specific purposes and types of aircraft. Understanding them is crucial to appreciating the complexities and advancements of modern aviation.
The Answer for Requirement Number 1b
When observing a model airplane, one can easily identify the four main forces that act on an actual airplane during its flight. These forces are vital to the aircraft’s ability to take off, cruise, and land:
- Lift: Generated by the wings, lift is the upward force that enables the airplane to rise. On the model, you can see this force represented by the shape of the wings, designed to create a pressure difference that results in upward motion.
- Gravity (Weight): Acting in opposition to lift, gravity pulls the aircraft downward. It’s essentially the weight of the entire airplane, including its structure, fuel, passengers, and cargo. In the model, this force is represented by its overall structure.
- Thrust: This force propels the airplane forward and is produced by the engines. On the model airplane, you can point to the engines or propellers to explain how thrust is generated, pushing the aircraft in its intended direction.
- Drag: The resisting force that slows the airplane down, drag is caused by air friction. It’s represented on the model by the entire frontal area that faces the direction of travel, illustrating how the air resists the airplane’s motion.
Here’s a simple table to summarize.
|Force||Location on Model||Description|
|Lift||Wings||Upward force that allows the airplane to rise|
|Gravity||Overall Structure||Downward force, the weight of the airplane|
|Thrust||Engines/Propellers||Forward force that propels the airplane|
|Drag||Frontal Area & Surfaces||Resisting force that slows the airplane down|
The Answer for Requirement Number 1c
Here’s an explanation that covers how an airfoil generates lift, how primary control surfaces affect the airplane’s attitude, and how a propeller produces thrust:
How an Airfoil Generates Lift: An airfoil is the shape of a wing or blade, designed to generate lift. As air flows over the curved top surface and flatter bottom surface, it creates a pressure difference. The air over the top moves faster, resulting in lower pressure, while the air below moves slower, causing higher pressure. This difference in pressure generates lift, allowing the airplane to rise.
Primary Control Surfaces and Their Effects on Airplane’s Attitude:
- Ailerons: Located on the wings, ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis. If the left aileron is raised and the right one is lowered, the airplane rolls to the left, and vice versa.
- Elevators: Positioned on the tail, elevators control pitch, or the up-and-down movement of the airplane’s nose. Raising the elevators causes the nose to go up; lowering them causes it to go down.
- Rudder: The rudder is on the vertical stabilizer of the tail and controls yaw, or the left-and-right movement of the nose. Turning the rudder to the left causes the nose to turn left and vice versa.
How a Propeller Produces Thrust: A propeller works like a twisted wing, or airfoil, that spins rapidly. As it turns, the angle and shape of the propeller blades force the air backward, creating a forward reaction known as thrust, propelling the airplane forward.
|Control Surface||Effect on Airplane||Description|
|Ailerons||Roll||Controls the rolling motion around the airplane|
|Elevators||Pitch||Controls the up-and-down movement of the nose|
|Rudder||Yaw||Controls the left-and-right movement of the nose|
The Answer for Requirement Number 1d
Let’s explore how the control surfaces of an airplane are used during different flight maneuvers:
- Thrust: Increased to provide the necessary power for acceleration on the runway.
- Elevators: Slightly up to raise the nose and lift off the ground.
- Ailerons and Rudder: Adjusted as needed for wind conditions and alignment.
- Straight Climb:
- Thrust: Increased to climb at a constant rate.
- Elevators: Up to maintain a nose-up attitude.
- Level Turn:
- Ailerons: Turned in the direction of the desired turn.
- Rudder: Used to coordinate the turn.
- Elevators: Neutral or adjusted slightly to maintain altitude.
- Climbing Turn:
- Ailerons and Rudder: Used together to initiate the turn.
- Elevators: Up to maintain a climbing attitude.
- Thrust: Increased to support the climb.
- Descending Turn:
- Ailerons and Rudder: Used to initiate the turn.
- Elevators: Down to maintain a descending attitude.
- Thrust: Reduced to allow descent.
- Straight Descent:
- Thrust: Reduced to allow the airplane to descend.
- Elevators: Adjusted to control the rate of descent.
- Thrust: Gradually reduced as the airplane approaches the runway.
- Elevators: Used to control the descent and finally raise the nose slightly for touchdown.
- Ailerons and Rudder: Adjusted as needed for alignment and wind conditions.
|Level Turn||Neutral||Turn Direction||Slight Adjust||Coordinate|
|Climbing Turn||Increase||Turn Direction||Up||Coordinate|
|Descending Turn||Reduce||Turn Direction||Down||Coordinate|
These control surface manipulations allow pilots to perform complex flight patterns, ensuring safe and efficient travel from takeoff to landing. Understanding them offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of aviation and the intricate balance of forces at play.
The Answer for Requirement Number 1e
In aviation, pilot certificates and ratings determine the level of qualifications and permissions a pilot holds. Here’s an explanation of the sport pilot, recreational pilot, and private pilot certificates, as well as the instrument rating:
- Sport Pilot Certificate:
- This is for flying light-sport aircraft and requires fewer training hours than other certificates. It’s a great entry point for those who want to fly for personal enjoyment. Restrictions typically include flying only during daylight and in good weather.
- Recreational Pilot Certificate:
- A step above the sport pilot, this certificate allows for more flexibility but still has limitations, such as a maximum of one passenger and restricted flying distances. It requires more training but is still primarily for personal, non-business-related flying.
- Private Pilot Certificate:
- This certificate permits even greater flexibility, allowing for unlimited passengers and travel distances. It requires comprehensive training and examination, and holders of this certificate can also pursue further ratings, such as the instrument rating.
- Instrument Rating:
- This is an additional qualification that can be added to the private pilot certificate. It allows pilots to fly in a wider variety of weather conditions and relies more heavily on instruments for navigation. The instrument rating requires additional training and testing on flying solely by referring to the aircraft’s instruments.
Here’s a summary table:
|Certificate/Rating||Purpose & Use||Training & Restrictions|
|Sport Pilot||Personal enjoyment; Light-sport aircraft||Fewer hours; Daylight, good weather only|
|Recreational Pilot||Personal enjoyment; More flexibility than Sport||More training; Some restrictions|
|Private Pilot||Personal/Business; Full flexibility||Comprehensive training; Few restrictions|
|Instrument Rating||Allows instrument-only navigation||Additional training; Added to Private|
These certificates and ratings represent different levels of proficiency and permissions within the world of aviation. They are structured to ensure that pilots have the requisite skills for the type of flying they intend to do, with each level building on the previous, allowing for increasingly complex and demanding flight operations.
The Answer for Requirement Number 2
Below are explanations for each of the given requirements:
a) Take a Flight in an Aircraft
This activity allows you to experience a real flight. With your parent’s permission, you’ll ride in an aircraft, noting the date, place, type of aircraft, and duration of the flight. It’s an opportunity to observe the sensations, sounds, and views from the sky, and report on what impressed you.
b) Perform a Preflight Inspection of a Light Airplane
Under supervision, you’ll perform a preflight inspection to ensure the airplane is safe for flight. This includes checking the fuel levels, examining the wings and tail for damage, verifying the functionality of control surfaces, and more. It’s a crucial process to understand the condition of the aircraft.
c) Obtain and Learn How to Read an Aeronautical Chart
An aeronautical chart is a map used by pilots to navigate. You’ll learn how to read it and measure a true course. Correcting it for magnetic variation, compass deviation, and wind drift helps in determining the actual compass heading. This teaches you the essentials of navigation.
d) Using a Flight Simulator
Flight simulators on computers allow you to virtually “fly” a course like the one you established in requirement 2c. It’s a hands-on way to understand how planning translates into action, letting you practice without leaving the ground.
e) Explain Various Instruments in a Single-Engine Aircraft
In a typical single-engine airplane, instruments are vital for safe and effective flying:
- Attitude Indicator: Shows the aircraft’s orientation relative to the horizon.
- Heading Indicator: Indicates the direction in which the aircraft is heading.
- Altimeter: Measures altitude above sea level.
- Airspeed Indicator: Shows the aircraft’s speed.
- Turn and Bank Indicator: Reflects the rate of turn and coordination.
- Vertical Speed Indicator: Displays rate of climb or descent.
- Compass: Shows magnetic direction.
- Navigation (GPS and VOR) and Communication Radios: For navigation and communication.
- Tachometer: Measures engine speed.
- Oil Pressure and Temperature Gauges: Monitor engine health.
f) Create an Original Poster of an Aircraft Instrument Panel
This creative task requires you to make a poster that includes and identifies the instruments and radios discussed in requirement 2e. It’s a fun way to visually reinforce what you’ve learned about aircraft instruments.
The Answer for Requirement Number 3
Below are detailed explanations for each of the requirements.
a) Build and Fly a Fuel-Driven or Battery-Powered Electric Model Airplane
Building and flying a model airplane can be an exciting and educational experience. Here’s what it involves:
- Building: You’ll construct a model airplane that is either fuel-driven or powered by an electric battery.
- Safety Rules for Building:
- Glue, Paint, Dope, Plastics: Use in well-ventilated areas; follow manufacturer’s instructions; avoid skin and eye contact.
- Fuel: Store and handle with care, away from flames or sparks.
- Battery Pack: Charge and handle according to specifications; avoid short circuits.
- Safety Rules for Flying:
- Fly in designated areas.
- Maintain a safe distance from people and structures.
- Follow local regulations and guidelines.
- Overall: Safety glasses and proper disposal of materials are also essential.
b) Build a Model FPG-9 and Organize a Competition
The FPG-9 is a foam plate glider that’s simple to make and can provide hours of entertainment. Here’s how this requirement might work:
- Building: You’ll create a model FPG-9 from foam plates and other basic materials. It’s a fun and creative project.
- Organizing a Competition: Engage others in your troop or patrol to build their models, and then organize a competition. This could include challenges related to the precision of flight and landing accuracy.
- Learning Outcome: Through this hands-on experience, participants not only learn about aerodynamics but also teamwork, competition, and sportsmanship.
Here’s a summary table:
|Requirement||Activities & Safety Considerations|
|Build and Fly Model||Building with proper safety (glue, paint, fuel, battery); Flying within guidelines; Safety equipment use.|
|Build FPG-9||Crafting foam plate gliders; Organizing a competition; Encouraging teamwork and sportsmanship.|
These activities blend hands-on construction with scientific understanding and social engagement. They foster not only an appreciation for the mechanics of flight but also essential skills like safety awareness, teamwork, and healthy competition.
Whether building a sophisticated model airplane or a simple foam glider, the emphasis is on learning through doing, exploring, and having fun.
The Answer for Requirement Number 4
Here are the detailed explanations for each of the given requirements.
a) Visit an Airport
By visiting an airport, you’ll get to observe various facilities and understand how they’re used. You’ll learn how runways are numbered, generally based on their magnetic direction rounded to the nearest 10 degrees. You’ll also learn how “active” runways are determined based on factors like wind direction and weather conditions. Active runways are the ones currently in use for takeoffs and landings.
b) Visit a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Facility
Touring an FAA facility, such as a control tower or an air route traffic control center, provides an insider’s view of aviation operations. You’ll need to call in advance to arrange the visit. During the tour, you’ll observe how air traffic is monitored and controlled, learn about safety regulations, and get an understanding of how various roles contribute to smooth air travel. The complexity and precision of these operations will likely leave a lasting impression.
c) Visit an Aviation Museum or Attend an Air Show
This option allows you to explore the historical, cultural, and technological aspects of aviation. An aviation museum will likely showcase different types of aircraft, historical artifacts, and interactive exhibits, offering insights into the evolution of flight. An air show, on the other hand, displays the skill and artistry of pilots, with thrilling performances and demonstrations. Both experiences can provide awe-inspiring perspectives on aviation.
Here’s a summary table:
|Requirement||Activities & Learning Opportunities|
|Visit an Airport||Understanding facilities, runway numbering, determination of active runways.|
|Visit an FAA Facility||Observing operations, learning about air traffic control, safety regulations, and roles in aviation.|
|Visit a Museum or Attend a Show||Exploring historical and technological aspects of aviation, witnessing demonstrations and performances.|
Each of these options provides a unique perspective on the aviation industry. Whether understanding the practical functions of an airport, witnessing the intricate coordination at an FAA facility, or appreciating the history and excitement at a museum or air show, these experiences deepen one’s understanding and appreciation for the complex world of aviation.
The Answer for Requirement Number 5
The world of aviation presents a broad spectrum of career possibilities, extending far beyond piloting aircraft. According to experts, for each person flying an aircraft, there are about 600 others engaged in various aviation-related professions. Here’s a brief exploration of three such career options:
- Pilots and Flight Engineers:
- Education: A bachelor’s degree in aviation, mathematics, physics, or a related field. Specialized flight training is also essential.
- Training: Completion of flight school and obtaining necessary certifications and licenses.
- Experience: Accumulated flight hours and hands-on experience with different types of aircraft.
- Aircraft Maintenance/Avionics:
- Education: An associate’s degree or certificate in aviation maintenance technology or a related field.
- Training: FAA certification and specialized training in aircraft systems and electronics.
- Experience: Practical experience in repairing and maintaining aircraft.
- Airport Careers (e.g., Air Traffic Controller):
- Education: A bachelor’s degree in aviation management, air traffic control, or a related field.
- Training: FAA training and certification, including rigorous examinations.
- Experience: On-the-job training and continual skill development.
For those who aspire to be part of this industry, a strong foundation in mathematics and physics is vital, starting as early as high school. College degrees with a focus on math and science may be necessary for many positions.
Let’s consider the profession of a commercial pilot as an example:
- Education Required: A bachelor’s degree in aviation or related field.
- Training Required: Completion of flight school, commercial pilot’s license, and instrument rating.
- Experience Required: Accumulating a certain number of flight hours, typically under supervision.
|Education||Bachelor’s degree in aviation or related field|
|Training||Flight school, commercial pilot’s license, instrument rating|
|Experience||Accumulated flight hours, hands-on experience with aircraft|
This career might interest someone who loves flying, enjoys responsibility, wants to travel, and has a passion for technology and machinery. The challenges and rewards of safely navigating the skies and connecting people across distances make it an appealing and fulfilling profession.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
The aviation merit badge is a recognition awarded to Scouts who have demonstrated understanding and skill in aviation topics, including aircraft types, flight principles, aviation history, safety, and career opportunities.
Earning the badge requires completing specific requirements, which often include understanding aviation principles, visiting aviation facilities, exploring aviation careers, and participating in hands-on activities like building model airplanes.
While there is no specific age limit, the aviation merit badge is generally suited for Scouts who are old enough to comprehend the various scientific and technical aspects of aviation.
An airfoil generates lift due to its shape and angle of attack, creating pressure differences above and below the wing. The primary control surfaces include ailerons (roll control), elevators (pitch control), and rudder (yaw control).
A preflight inspection involves checking the aircraft’s exterior and interior for any damage or irregularities, examining engine components, verifying the functionality of instruments and controls, and ensuring compliance with safety regulations.
Building and flying a model airplane involves selecting an appropriate kit or materials, assembling the model according to instructions, understanding safety rules, and then flying the model in a suitable and safe location.
Visiting a museum or air show can provide insights into the history, technology, artistry, and excitement of aviation, through exhibits, demonstrations, and interactions with aviation professionals.
Math and physics are foundational to understanding and applying aviation principles, including aerodynamics, navigation, engineering, and flight operations. A strong background in these subjects is essential for many aviation careers.